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World War I

Knowledge Identifier: !World_War_I


World War I

Global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918 add

Category: Military

Activity starting in 1914.

Countries: United States (28%), United Kingdom (19%), Germany (9%)

Main connections: United States Army, World War II, England

Linked to: League of Nations, Royal Navy, British Army, Imperial War Museum




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Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916 add something


Although the vast majority of Irish people consented to participate in the war in 1914 and 1915, a minority of advanced Irish nationalists staunchly opposed taking part add something


Of the 60 million European soldiers who were mobilised from 1914 to 1918, 8 million were killed, 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million were seriously injured add something


Total Romanian deaths from 1914 to 1918, military and civilian, within contemporary borders, were estimated at 748,000 add something


Edward Thomas (poet) - Thomas immortalised the railway station at Adlestrop in a poem of that name after his train made an unscheduled stop at the Cotswolds station on 24 June 1914, shortly before the outbreak of the First World War


Robert Graves - At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, Graves enlisted almost immediately, taking a commission in the Royal Welch Fusiliers


Patrick Blackett, Baron Blackett - In August 1914 on the outbreak of World War I Blackett was assigned to active service as a midshipman


Mussolini, a syndicalist who supported the war on grounds of irredentist claims on Italian-populated regions of Austria-Hungary, formed the pro-interventionist "Il Popolo d'Italia" and the "Fasci Riviluzionario d'Azione Internazionalista" in October 1914 that later developed into the "Fasci di Combattimento" in 1919, the origin of fascism add something


Origins of World War I


Battle of Romani - Further to the west, the Suez Canal was successfully defended from Ottoman attacks in 1915 and 1916; in August a joint German and Ottoman force was defeated at the Battle of Romani by the Anzac Mounted and the 52nd Infantry Divisions add something


Battle of the Frontiers - By the spring of 1915, the Russians had retreated into Galicia, and in May the Central Powers achieved a remarkable breakthrough on Poland's southern frontiers add something


Treaty of London - The 1915 Treaty of London between Italy and the Triple Entente included secret provisions whereby the Allies agreed with Italy to ignore papal peace moves towards the Central Powers. add something


After the sinking of the passenger ship RMS "Lusitania" in 1915, Germany promised not to target passenger liners, while Britain armed its merchant ships, placing them beyond the protection of the "cruiser rules" which demanded warning and placing crews in "a place of safety" add something


For the first ten months of 1915, Austria-Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy add something


General Yudenich, the Russian commander from 1915 to 1916, drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories add something


In early 1915, a number of Armenians joined the Russian forces, and the Ottoman government used this as a pretext to issue the Tehcir Law add something


In late 1915, a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece, to offer assistance and to pressure the government to declare war against the Central Powers add something


The Germans conducted air raids on England during 1915 and 1916 with airships. Objective was to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines. The resulting panic led to the diversion of several squadrons of fighters from France add something


The large number of head wounds caused by exploding shells and fragmentation forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet, led by the French, who introduced the Adrian helmet in 1915 add something


This authorized the deportation of the Armenians from eastern provinces of the Empire to Syria between 1915 and 1917. add something


When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, some 20,000 Russians became prisoners add something


William Wedgwood Benn, 1st Viscount Stansgate - Benn was commissioned as a Lieutenant in the London Yeomanry in 1915 and served with the Royal Naval Air Service during the First World War, seeing service at Gallipoli


Alfred Thayer Mahan - But the course of World War I changed ideas about the place of the navy, as the refusal of the German fleet to engage in a decisive battle, the Dardanelles expedition of 1915, the development of submarine warfare, and the organization of convoys all showed the navy's new role in combined operations with the army


Leopold III of Belgium - Crown Prince Leopold fought as a private during World War I with the 12th Belgian Regiment while still a teenager, but was sent by his father to Eton College in the United Kingdom, in 1915


Maximilien Luce - During World War I, Luce painted war scenes, depicting soldiers struggling against the horrors of war


Dashiell Hammett - He served as an operative for the Pinkertons from 1915 to February 1922, with time off to serve in World War I


Laurence Binyon - In 1915, despite being too old to enlist in the First World War, Laurence Binyon volunteered at a British hospital for French soldiers, Hôpital Temporaire d'Arc-en-Barrois, Haute-Marne, France, working briefly as a hospital orderly


Edward Thomas (poet) - In 1915, he enlisted in the British Army to fight in the First World War and was killed in action during the Battle of Arras in 1917, soon after he arrived in France


Henry Ford - In 1915, the pacifist Rosika Schwimmer gained favor with Ford, who agreed to fund a peace ship to Europe, where World War I was raging


Katherine Mansfield - Mansfield's life and work were changed forever by the 1915 death of her beloved brother, Leslie Heron "Chummie" Beauchamp, as a New Zealand soldier in France in World War I


Erich Raeder - Raeder served as Hipper's Chief of Staff during World War I as well as in combat posts, taking part in the Battle of Dogger Bank in 1915 and the Battle of Jutland in 1916


Asta Nielsen - She remained popular on both sides through World War I and in 1915 she visited New York City to study American film techniques


Heinrich Bruning - Volunteering for the infantry, he was enlisted despite the army's concern about his shortsightedness and physical weakness, and served in World War I from 1915 to 1918


Ivor Gurney - Gurney's studies were interrupted by World War I when he enlisted as a private soldier in the Gloucestershire Regiment in February 1915


Victor Horta - With World War I in progress, Horta left Belgium for London in February 1915 and attended the Town Planning Conference on the Reconstruction of Belgium, organised by the International Garden Cities and Town Planning Association


Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915, Italy joined the Triple Entente and declared war on Austria-Hungary on 23 May. Fifteen months later Italy declared war on Germany add something


Eric Partridge - During this time Partridge taught for three years as a school teacher before enrolling in the Australian Imperial Force in April 1915 and serving in the Australian infantry during the First World War, serving in Egypt, Gallipoli and on the Western Front, before being wounded in the Battle of Pozières


Second Battle of Ypres - On 3 May 1915, during the Second Battle of Ypres, Lieutenant Alexis Helmer was killed. add something


When a German U-boat sank the British liner RMS "Lusitania" on 7 May 1915 with 128 Americans among the dead, President Woodrow Wilson insisted that "America is too proud to fight" but demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships add something


David Niven - William served in the Berkshire Yeomanry in the First World War and was killed during the Gallipoli Campaign on 21 August 1915


Karl Liebknecht - Liebknecht was arrested and sent to the eastern front during World War I despite his immunity as a member of parliament; refusing to fight, he served burying the dead, and due to his rapidly deteriorating health was allowed to return to Germany in October 1915


At his graveside, his friend John McCrae, M.D., of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, wrote the memorable poem "In Flanders Fields" as a salute to those who perished in the Great War. Published in "Punch" on 8 December 1915, it is still recited today, especially on Remembrance Day and Memorial Day add something


!Battle_of_Asiago - The Austro-Hungarians counterattacked in the Altopiano of Asiago, towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of 1916 , but made little progress add something


Empress Alexandra's increasingly incompetent rule drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin, at the end of 1916 add something


In 1916, an order was issued to deport around 650,000 Volga Germans to the east as well, but the Russian Revolution prevented this from being carried out add something


In 1916, the Arab Revolt began in Ottoman-controlled territories of the Middle East in an effort to achieve independence add something


In the summer of 1916, the Italians captured the town of Gorizia add something


Irish nationalists and Marxists attempted to pursue Irish independence, culminating in the Easter Rising of 1916, with Germany sending 20,000 rifles to Ireland in order to stir unrest in the United Kingdom add something


It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet, worn by British Imperial and U.S. troops, and in 1916 by the distinctive German "Stahlhelm", a design, with improvements, still in use today add something


President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late 1916, but allowed a great increase in U.S. government lending to the Allies add something


The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of 1916, when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service add something


Wilson was narrowly reelected in 1916 as his supporters emphasized "he kept us out of war" add something


Glenn Curtiss - A patent dispute with the Wright brothers continued for several years, until it was resolved during World War I. Since the last Wright aircraft, the Wright Model L, was a single prototype of a "scouting" aircraft, made in 1916, the U.S. government, desperately short of combat aircraft, pressured both firms to resolve the patent dispute


Ion Antonescu - After 1916, when the Kingdom of Romania entered World War I on the Entente side, Ion Antonescu acted as chief of staff for General Constantin Prezan


Emma Goldman - Although U.S. President Woodrow Wilson was re-elected in 1916 under the slogan "He kept us out of the war", at the start of his second term he decided that Germany's continued deployment of unrestricted submarine warfare was sufficient cause for the U.S. to enter World War I


Grigori Rasputin - British intelligence reports, sent between London and Saint Petersburg in 1916, indicate that the British were not only extremely concerned about Rasputin's displacement of pro-British ministers in the Russian government but, even more importantly, his apparent insistence on withdrawing Russian troops from World War I


Alexander Cameron Rutherford - During World War I he was Alberta director of the National Service Commission, which oversaw conscription from 1916 until 1918, and in 1916 was appointed Honorary Colonel of the 194th Highland Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force


John Maclean (Scottish socialist) - During World War I he was active in anti-war circles and was imprisoned for his efforts in 1916, but was released in 1917 after demonstrations following the February Revolution in Russia


Ludwig Erhard - He joined the German forces during World War I 1916 as an artilleryman, fought in Romania and was seriously injured near Ypres in 1918


Max Horkheimer - In 1916, his manufacturing career ended when he was drafted into World War I


Celia Johnson - Johnson's first public performance was in 1916, when she played a role in a charity performance of "King Cophetua and the Beggar Maid" to raise funds for returned World War I soldiers


Some 11,800 British Empire soldiers, most of them Indians, became prisoners after the Siege of Kut in Mesopotamia in April 1916; 4,250 died in captivity add something


Despite the success of the June 1916 Brusilov Offensive in eastern Galicia, dissatisfaction with the Russian government's conduct of the war grew add something


Instigated by the Arab bureau of the British Foreign Office, the Arab Revolt started with the help of Britain in June 1916 at the Battle of Mecca, led by Sherif Hussein of Mecca, and ended with the Ottoman surrender of Damascus add something


Battle of the Somme - On 1 July 1916, the British Army endured the bloodiest day in its history, suffering 57,470 casualties, including 19,240 dead, on the first day of the Battle of the Somme add something


Battle of Verdun - Protracted German action at Verdun throughout 1916, combined with the bloodletting at the Somme , brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse add something


When the Entente Powers promised Romania large territories of eastern Hungary that had a large Romanian population in exchange for Romania's declaring war on the Central Powers, the Romanian government renounced its neutrality, and on 27 August 1916 the Romanian Army launched an attack against Austria-Hungary, with limited Russian support add something


Battle of Flers-Courcelette - Tanks were first used in combat by the British during the Battle of Flers-Courcelette on 15 September 1916 with only partial success; the French introduced the revolving turret of the Renault FT in late 1917; the Germans employed captured Allied tanks and small numbers of their own design add something


The British first tanks were used during the Battle of the Somme on 15 September 1916 add something


French and Serbian forces retook limited areas of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November 1916 as a result of the costly Monastir Offensive which brought stabilization of the front add something


!Battle_of_Bucharest - As a result of the Battle of Bucharest the Central Powers occupied Bucharest on 6 December 1916 add something


Battle of Arras - In the 1917 Battle of Arras, the only significant British military success was the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps under Sir Arthur Currie and Julian Byng add something


Revolution of 1917 - Many pogroms accompanied the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War add something


Western Front - After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917 add something


By 1917, indirect fire with guns was commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging, notably aircraft and the often overlooked field telephone add something


Events of 1917 proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until 1918 add something


Finally, in early 1917 Germany adopted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, realising the Americans would eventually enter the war add something


In 1917, Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau, with his wife's brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary, without the knowledge of Germany add something


In 1917, Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly entered into peace negotiations with the Allied powers, with his brother-in-law Sixtus as intermediary, without the knowledge of his ally Germany add something


In 1917, Russian Grand Duke Nicholas assumed command of the Caucasus front add something


In 1917, a series of mutinies in the French army led to dozens of soldiers being executed and many more imprisoned add something


In 1917, the U.S. Congress gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I, as part of the Jones Act add something


In Australia, a sustained pro-conscription campaign by Prime Minister Billy Hughes caused a split in the Australian Labor Party, so Hughes formed the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917 to pursue the matter add something


In Russia, opposition to the war led to soldiers establishing their own revolutionary committees, which helped foment the October Revolution of 1917, with the call going up for "bread, land, and peace" add something


In Russia, when the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army were released in 1917, they re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War. add something


In the U.S., the Espionage Act of 1917 and Sedition Act of 1918 made it a federal crime to oppose military recruitment or make any statements deemed "disloyal" add something


In the autumn of 1917, thanks to the improving situation on the Eastern front, the Austro-Hungarian troops received large numbers of reinforcements, including German Stormtroopers and the elite Alpenkorps add something


Lobbying by Chaim Weizmann and fear that American Jews would encourage the USA to support Germany culminated in the British government's Balfour Declaration of 1917, endorsing creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine add something


Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in 1917 add something


Prime Minister Robert Borden pushed through a Military Service Act, provoking the Conscription Crisis of 1917 add something


The Conscription Crisis of 1917 in Canada erupted when conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden brought in compulsory military service over the objection of French-speaking Quebecers add something


The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in 1917 after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland were carved from it add something


The U-boat threat lessened in 1917, when merchant ships began travelling in convoys, escorted by destroyers add something


The United States had a small army, but, after the passage of the Selective Service Act, it drafted 2,8 million men, and by summer 1918 was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day add something


The social disruption and widespread violence of the Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War sparked more than 2,000 pogroms in the former Russian Empire, mostly in the Ukraine add something


F. Van Wyck Mason - After a few years in Illinois he left for Europe in 1917 while still a teenager to fight in World War I


Franz Brentano - After his retirement he moved to Florence in Italy, transferring to Zürich at the outbreak of the First World War, where he died in 1917


Wilhelm Ostwald - As a consequence of World War I this membership ended in 1917 and was not resumed after the war


Douglas Bader - Bader's father saw action in the First World War in the Royal Engineers, and was wounded in action in 1917


Jim Barnes - Barnes's two PGA titles were the first in the event; there was no tournament in 1917 or 1918 because of World War I


John William McCormack - He served in the United States Army in World War I in 1917 and 1918


J. Frank Dobie - In 1917, he left the university to serve in the field artillery in World War I


Louis St. Laurent - King had been in his political infancy when he witnessed the Conscription Crisis of 1917 during World War I and he wanted to prevent the same divisions from threatening his government


Battle of Magdhaba - Following this victory, a British Empire Egyptian Expeditionary Force advanced across the Sinai Peninsula, pushing Ottoman forces back in the Battle of Magdhaba in December and the Battle of Rafa on the border between the Egyptian Sinai and Ottoman Palestine in January 1917 add something


In January 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare, realizing it would mean American entry add something


Clifton Webb - The World War I year of 1917 proved to be better, with a 233-performance run of Jerome Kern's "Love o'Mike", which opened at the Shubert Theatre on January 15, 1917


In response, in February 1917, the German General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war add something


February Revolution - However, in March 1917 , the Czar was overthrown in the February Revolution and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart add something


October Revolution - The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year add something


In March 1917, demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists. add something


The uprising was crushed by joint efforts of Bulgarian and Austrian forces at the end of March 1917 add something


First Battle of Gaza - In March and April 1917 at the First and Second Battles of Gaza, German and Ottoman forces stopped the advance of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force which had begun in August 1916 at Romani add something


William Boeing - When America entered the First World War in April 1917, Boeing changed the name of Pacific Aero Products Co. to Boeing_Airplane_Company and obtained orders from the United States Navy for 50 planes


Futile attempts at frontal assault came at a high price for both the British and the French "poilu" and led to widespread mutinies in 1917, after the costly Nivelle Offensive add something


In Milan in May 1917, Bolshevik revolutionaries organised and engaged in rioting calling for an end to the war, and managed to close down factories and stop public transportation add something


B. Carroll Reece - During the First World War, he enlisted in May 1917 and served with the American Expeditionary Forces from October 1917 to July 1919


On 3 May 1917, during the Nivelle Offensive, the weary French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused their orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons add something


Venizelos returned to Athens on 29 May 1917 and Greece, now unified, officially joined the war on the side of the Allies add something


Clifton Sprague - Due to the American involvement in World War I he received his commission as an ensign one year early on June 28, 1917, finishing forty-third out of 199


John Dos Passos - In July 1917, with World War I raging in Europe and America not yet participating, Dos Passos volunteered for the S.S.U. 60 of the Norton-Harjes Ambulance Corps, along with friends E.E. Cummings and Robert Hillyer


Leo Strauss - Strauss served in the German army during World War I from July 5, 1917 to December 1918


Consequently, the publication of Benedict's proposed seven-point Peace Note of August 1917 was roundly ignored by all parties except Austria-Hungary add something


Earl Warren - In August 1917, Warren enlisted in the U.S. Army for World War I service


In September 1917, Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied add something


Frank Luke - Following America's entry into World War I in April 1917, Frank enlisted in the Aviation Section, U.S. Signal Corps on September 25, 1917, and received pilot training in Texas and California


Thomas Crerar - Although he had no experience as an elected official, he was appointed as Minister of Agriculture in Robert Laird Borden's Union government on October 12, 1917, to provide a show of national unity during the First World War


The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October 1917, spearheaded by the Germans add something


Supreme War Council - Doullens Conference - A Supreme War Council of Allied forces was created at the Doullens Conference on 5 November 1917 add something


Russian withdrawal from the war in late 1917 as a result of the October Revolution meant that Romania was forced to sign an armistice with the Central Powers on 9 December 1917 add something


Battle of Vittorio Veneto - In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Piave River, and were finally decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year add something


After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives and United States forces began entering the trenches add something


From 1918 to 1922, Russia had about 25 million infections and 3 million deaths from epidemic typhus add something


German General Erich Ludendorff drew up plans for the 1918 offensive on the Western Front add something


However, in the Spring Offensive of 1918, Ludendorff used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points add something


In 1918, Admiral Enrico Millo declared himself Italy's Governor of Dalmatia add something


In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early 1918, limited to meat, sugar, and fats , but not bread add something


Solidarity was briefly maintained when the Transcaucasian Federative Republic was created in the spring of 1918 but collapsed in May, when the Georgians asked and received protection from Germany and the Azerbaijanis concluded a treaty with the Ottoman Empire that was more akin to a military alliance add something


Horace Smith-Dorrien - According to Wyndham Childs in the summer of 1918, Smith-Dorrien tried, and nearly succeeded, in uniting the Comrades of the Great War, the National Association of Discharged Sailors and Soldiers, and the National Federation of Discharged and Demobilized Sailors and Soldiers into one body


Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll - After the end of the First World War in 1918, at the age of 70, she began to retire from public life, undertaking few public duties outside of Kensington Palace


G. D. H. Cole - As a conscientious objector during World War One, Cole's involvement in the campaign against conscription introduced him to a co-worker, Margaret Postgate, whom he married in 1918


Overton Brooks - Brooks served overseas during World War I as an enlisted man in the Sixth Field Artillery, First Division, Regular Army, 1918-1919


Eugene V. Debs - Debs was noted for his oratory, and his speech denouncing American participation in World War I led to his second arrest in 1918


Robert Graves - Having been posted to Limerick in late 1918, he "woke up with a sudden chill, which I recognized as the first symptoms of Spanish influenza


Barnes Wallis - He is portrayed as a British engineer in an alternate history, where the First World War does not end in 1918, and Wallis concentrates his energies on developing a machine for time travel


Francis Biddle - He was in the United States Army in 1918, during World War I


Christy Mathewson - In 1918, Mathewson enlisted in the United States Army for World War I


Harvey Williams Cushing - In 1918, he was made senior consultant in neurological surgery for the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I


Gertrude Chandler Warner - In 1918, while she was teaching Sunday School, Warner was called to teach first grade, mainly because male teachers were being called to serve in World War I


Rogers Hornsby - Many baseball players were drafted to fight in World War I in 1918, but Hornsby was given a draft deferment because he was supporting his family


Sergei Korolev - The year 1918 was tumultuous in Russia, with the close of World War I and the ongoing Russian Revolution


Erich Raeder - These elements, along with the Navy's long-term Anglophobia and antidemocratic posture and its belief that Germany's and the navy's defeat in World War I had been the result of a "stab in the back" formed its revisionist outlook from 1918 to 1933


Mary Pickford - They toured the US together in 1918 to promote Liberty Bond sales for the World War I effort


Edith Wharton - When World War I ended in 1918 she abandoned her fashionable urban address for the delights of the country at the Pavillon Colombe in nearby Saint-Brice-sous-Forêt


In January 1918, Romanian forces established control over Bessarabia as the Russian Army abandoned the province add something


Bill W. - Wilson married Lois on January 24, 1918, just before he left to serve in World War I as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Coast Artillery


Arthur L. Bristol - Going ashore in February 1918, he labored in Washington through the end of World War I and into the spring of 1919 on duty in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations


James Whale - Set over a four-day period in March 1918 in the trenches at Saint-Quentin, France, "Journey's End" gives a glimpse into the experiences of the officers of a British Army infantry company in World War I. The key conflict is between Captain Stanhope, the company commander, and Lieutenant Raleigh, the brother of Stanhope's fiancée


Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - At first the Bolsheviks refused the German terms, but when German troops began marching across the Ukraine unopposed, the new government acceded to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918 add something


!Battle_of_Amiens_(1918) - The operation commenced on 21 March 1918 with an attack on British forces near Amiens add something


Early in 1918 the front line was extended into the Jordan Valley which continued to be occupied, following the First Transjordan and the Second Transjordan attack by British Empire forces in March and April 1918, into the summer add something


German casualties between March and April 1918 were 270,000, including many highly trained storm troopers add something


In April 1918 the Rome Congress of Oppressed Nationalities met, including Czechoslovak, Italian, Polish, Transylvanian, and Yugoslav representatives who urged the Allies to support national self-determination for the peoples residing within Austria-Hungary add something


Dietrich Bonhoeffer - Bonhoeffer's second oldest brother Walter was killed in action in World War I in April 1918


$Treaty_of_Bucharest - Romania officially made peace with the Central Powers by signing the Treaty of Bucharest on 7 May 1918 add something


World War I saw the first use of aircraft carriers in combat, with HMS "Furious" launching Sopwith Camels in a successful raid against the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in July 1918, as well as blimps for antisubmarine patrol add something


Arnold Orville Beckman - World War I was still raging when Beckman turned 18, and so in August 1918, he enlisted in the United States Marines


The Allied counteroffensive, known as the Hundred Days Offensive, began on 8 August 1918 add something


Battle of Megiddo - The reorganised Egyptian Expeditionary Force, with an additional mounted division broke Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918 add something


However, this observer's role was abandoned when the U.S. entered the war, as Fortescue immediately re-enlisted, sustaining wounds at Forest of Argonne in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, September 1918 add something


After Serbian breakthrough of Bulgarian lines, Bulgaria capitulated on 29 September 1918 add something


Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice, on 29 September 1918 at Saloniki add something


In November 1918 the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel to invade Germany add something


The sailors' revolt which ensued in the naval ports of Wilhelmshaven and Kiel spread across the whole country within days and led to the proclamation of a republic on 9 November 1918 and shortly thereafter to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II add something


The treaty was renounced in October 1918 by the Alexandru Marghiloman government, and Romania nominally re-entered the war on 10 November 1918 add something


Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, later known as Armistice Day add something


Xu Shichang - He held a massive celebration in Beijing for China's victory in World War I on 18 November 1918, however he brought troops into the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War


After 1919, the U.S. demanded repayment of these loans add something


Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles Treaty was signed in 1919, which was when many of the troops serving abroad finally returned to their home countries; by contrast, most commemorations of the war's end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November 1918 add something


The 1919 Treaty of Versailles officially ended the war add something


Karl Liebknecht - He is best known for his opposition to World War I in the Reichstag and his role in the Spartacist uprising of 1919


Geoffrey de Havilland - He received the Air Force Cross in 1919, in recognition of his service in the First World War, and was knighted in 1944


Merian C. Cooper - In January 1919, while on special duty with the American Red Cross in France, he located the grave near the village of Murvaux of Lieutenant Frank Luke, Jr., America's second-highest-scoring ace of World War I.


Treaty of Versailles - A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until the signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June 1919 add something


Building on Wilson's 14th point, the Treaty of Versailles brought into being the League of Nations on 28 June 1919 add something


Battle of Cer - "The First World War" was the title of a 1920 history by the officer and journalist Charles à Court Repington add something


Treaty of Sèvres - The Ottoman Empire was to be partitioned by the Treaty of Sèvres of 1920 add something


Between 1920 and 1924, 354,000 Hungarians fled former Hungarian territories attached to Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia add something


Runaway inflation in the 1920s contributed to the economic collapse of the Weimar Republic, and the payment of reparations was suspended in 1931 following the Stock Market Crash of 1929 and the beginnings of the Great Depression worldwide add something


August Derleth - Despite close similarities to Doyle's creation, Pons lived in the post-World War I era, in the decade of the 1920s


Jacob Bronowski - His family moved to Germany during the First World War, and to England in 1920


Erich Raeder - In the 1920s, a major debate occurred within the "Reichsmarine" as to what were the correct lessons of World War I for the future, which tended to pit followers of Tirpitz against the followers of the "Wegener thesis"


Miep Gies - Born "'Hermine Santruschitz"' in Vienna , , she was transported to Leiden from Vienna in December 1920 to escape the food shortages prevailing in Austria after World War I


The best estimates of the death toll from the Russian famine of 1921 run from 5 million to 10 million people add something


Billy Mitchell - On July 20, 1921, the Navy brought out the ex-German World War I battleship,


Liberty Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri, is a United States memorial dedicated to all Americans who served in World War I. The site for the Liberty Memorial was dedicated on 1 November 1921 add something


Treaty of Lausanne - This treaty was never ratified by the Sultan and was rejected by the Turkish republican movement, leading to the Turkish Independence War and, ultimately, to the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne add something


Whereas before World War I Russia had about 3,5 million cases of malaria, its people suffered more than 13 million cases in 1923 add something


Willa Cather - In 1923 she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for "One of Ours" , a novel set during World War I


Charles Lindbergh - Lindbergh's first solo flight did not come until May 1923 at Souther Field in Americus, Georgia, a former Army flight training field where he had come to buy a World War I surplus Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" biplane


However, the negotiation of the latter treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife , and a final peace treaty between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey was not signed until 24 July 1923, at Lausanne add something


Under its terms, the Allied forces divested Constantinople on 23 August 1923 add something


German prisoners were still being held in Russia as late as 1924 add something


Charles G. Dawes - For his work on the Dawes Plan for World War I reparations he was a cowinner of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1925


Andre Kertesz - He served briefly in World War I and moved to Paris in 1925, the artistic capital of the world, against the wishes of his family


Christy Mathewson - Mathewson served in World War I and died in Saranac Lake, New York, of tuberculosis in 1925


Gustav Stresemann - The Treaties were signed in October 1925 at Locarno. Germany officially recognized the post- World War I western border for the first time, and was guaranteed peace with France, and promised admission to the League of Nations and evacuation of the last Allied occupation troops from the Rhineland


After three years of construction, the Liberty Memorial was completed and President Calvin Coolidge delivered the dedication speech to a crowd of 150,000 people in 1926 add something


Joe Louis - In 1926, shaken by a gang of white men in the Ku Klux Klan, Louis's family moved to Detroit , Michigan, forming part of the post- World War I Great Migration


Charles Lindbergh - The first of the well-known challengers to actually attempt a flight was famed World War I French flying ace René Fonck who on September 21, 1926, planned to fly eastbound from Roosevelt Airfield in New York in a three-engine Sikorsky S-35


Erich Maria Remarque - The novel, published in 1929, described the experiences of German soldiers during World War I


Numerous anti-Soviet Russians fled the country after the Revolution; by the 1930s the northern Chinese city of Harbin had 100,000 Russians add something


James Whale - The sequel to Erich Maria Remarque's "All Quiet on the Western Front", which Universal had filmed in 1930, the novel and film follow the lives of several young German men who have returned from the trenches of World War I and their struggles to re-integrate into society


This circular system collapsed in 1931 and the loans were never repaid add something


Horace - Quoted from Auden's poem "Out on the lawn I lie in bed", 1933, and cited by S. Harrison, "The nineteenth and twentieth centuries", 340


Busby Berkeley - The numbers he choreographed were mostly upbeat and focused on decoration as opposed to substance; one exception to this is the number Remember My Forgotten Man from "Gold Diggers of 1933", which dealt with the treatment of soldiers in a post- World War I Depression


Marshall McLuhan - He entered Trinity Hall, Cambridge in the Fall of 1934, where he studied under I. A. Richards and F. R. Leavis, and was influenced by New Criticism


Erich Raeder - In 1937, Raeder banned a study of the Navy in World War I critical of Tirpitz because "it is unconditionally necessary to hold back all publications contra Tirpitz"


Victor Horta - The start of construction was seriously delayed due to the lengthy process of purchasing and demolishing over 1,000 buildings along the route of the new railway , technical problems, and the intervention of World War I. Construction finally began in 1937 as part of the plans to boost the economy during the Great Depression, before being delayed again by the outbreak of World War II


Erich Maria Remarque - The Nazis claimed, falsely, that Remarque had not done active service during World War I. In 1938, Remarque's German citizenship was revoked and in 1939 after he and his ex-wife were remarried to prevent her repatriation to Germany, they left Porto Ronco, Switzerland for the United States of America


World War II - It was predominantly called the "'World War"' or the "'Great War"' from its occurrence until the start of World War II in 1939, and the "'First World War"' or World War I thereafter add something


After the onset of the Second World War in 1939, the terms "World War I" or "the First World War" became standard, with British and Canadian historians favouring the "First World War", and Americans "World War I" add something


Richard Bong - World War I - By April 1944, Captain Bong had shot down 27 Japanese aircraft, surpassing Eddie Rickenbacker's American record of 26 credited victories in World War I


They have dynamically changed according to contemporary influences, reflecting in the 1950s perceptions of the war as 'aimless' following the contrasting Second World War and emphasising conflict within the ranks during times of class conflict in the 1960s add something


T. E. Lawrence - The breadth and variety of his activities and associations, and his ability to describe them vividly in writing, earned him international fame as "'Lawrence of Arabia"', a title which was used for the 1962 film based on his World War I activities


Pete Waterman - World War I - In 1979, Waterman set up "Loose Ends" with Peter Collins, the first coming under the name "'14-18"' with a single inspired by World War I, "Good-Bye-Ee," and hits with artists like Musical Youth and Nik Kershaw


Chip Cravaack - He was raised a Republican in a family that had a military background; his father had served in the Korean War, and his grandfather had served in World War I. Cravaack graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1981, receiving a bachelor of science degree.


Keira Knightley - World War I - Based on writer Christopher Hampton's 2002 stage play "The Talking Cure" and set on the eve of World War I, the film depicts the turbulent relationships between fledgling psychiatrist Carl Jung, his mentor Sigmund Freud and Sabina Spielrein played by Knightley, the troubled but beautiful young psychoanalyst who comes between them


Francis Pegahmagabow - In 2003 the Pegahmagabow donated his medals, and chief head dress to the Canadian War Museum where they can be seen as of 2010 as part of the World War I display


Andrew Motion - World War I - Commissioned to write in the honour of 109-year-old Harry Patch, the last surviving "Tommy" to have fought in World War I, Motion composed a five-part poem, read and received by Patch at the Bishop's Palace in Wells in 2008


Jean Schmidt - A few days before the 2008 congressional election, Krikorian published a controversial letter alleging that "Jean Schmidt has taken $30,000 in blood money from Turkish government sponsored political action committees to deny the slaughter of 1.5 million Armenian men, women and children by the Ottoman Turkish Government during World War I." Finally, the flier asserted that the claims it contained could be adequately verified by a visit to the Federal Election Commission's website.


Germany finished paying off the reparations in October 2010 add something


On 3 October 2010, Germany made the final payment on these bonds add something


The UK Government has budgeted substantial resources to the commemoration of the war during the period 2014 to 2018 add something


On 3 August 2014, French President Francois Hollande and German President Joachim Gauck together marked the centenary of Germany's declaration of war on France by laying the first stone of a memorial in Vieil Armand, known in German as Hartmannswillerkopf, for French and German soldiers killed in the war add something


On 8 November 2014, a memorial documentary s://www add something